The heart is the seat of the spirit and consciousness. It corresponds to the South, the planet Mars, and the color red. It is united with the small intestine and checked by the function of the kidneys. It’s energy is represented outwardly by the complexion of the tongue. the ears are primarily connected to the kidneys but are also considered to be the opening of the heart. The circulation of this energy is highest during June and July. Bitterness, damp heat and summer stimulate the heart’s energy when in moderation and when these affinities are in excess or deficiency they create illness. Excess joy can also create deficiency and scatter the spirit. Joy is counteracted by fear and counteracts grief. Sweetness is used to drain the heart. Symptoms appear as thirst, pain in the chest and forearm, and excess heat and pain in the palms. The small intestine is united with the heart. Symptoms of the small intestine include sore throat, shoulder and upper arm pain, and difficulty in hearing.